In the summer, the great American pastime is the cookout. From burgers and corn on the cob to s’mores, cooking food over the fire or on a grill has enormous appeal. But public health experts have identified some hazards associated with outdoor cooking. Is there a way you can grill safely?

To Grill Safely, Clean the Grill Properly:

Q. You have written about the dangers of wire brush bristles getting into grilled food. Is there a way to clean off the backyard barbecue grill that avoids that problem?

A. Emergency physicians have reported injuries when people inadvertently swallow wire bristles trapped in their grilled food (Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, April 2016). Using a wire brush to clean the grill can create a problem that may be quite serious (Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, Oct. 2018). The bristle may lodge in the throat and require surgery to remove it.

Such brushes should be replaced at least every two years. Readers have other suggestions for cleaning the grill, such as wiping it down with a damp paper towel or using a nylon scrubber. Others use a brush with metal coils rather than bristles or nylon bristles rather than metal ones. One person recommended sliding an onion over the hot grill to clean it.

Wire bristles are not the only health hazard that lurks at the barbecue. Epidemiologists have found that people who frequently eat grilled meat are at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. 

The Story on Grilled Meat and Diabetes:

The long-running Nurses’ Health Study collected detailed dietary data on nearly 60,000 women every few years between 1986 and 2012. The investigators also compile complete health information on every participant, yielding 1.24 million person-years of data.

More than 6,000 women were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the study (Liu et al, Diabetes Care, online June 13, 2017). The scientists found that women who ate red meat that was barbecued or broiled two or more times a week had a significantly higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate it less than once a month.

Their risk was 29 percent higher if they ate barbecued meat compared to women who rarely indulged in such food. Those who frequently ate broiled meat had a 23 percent higher risk of diabetes. Eating meats that were stewed or boiled did not seem to carry the same risk.

Does Grilled Meat Contribute to Weight Gain?

The researchers found that women who ate grilled meat frequently were also more likely to gain weight, which might contribute to the risk of diabetes. They did not explain this connection, however. Might it be that meals containing barbecued burgers or steak also have lots of fattening extras? To grill safely, keep meat consumption moderate, and remember that vegetables are also an important part of every meal.

Grill Safely with the Three Ms:

Another significant concern is the development of carcinogenic chemicals in meat exposed to very high heat such as on a grill. We received this question several years ago, and responded with our recommendations for safe grilling practices.

Q. Our family is big into grilling, even the kids. Our son loves to cook burgers or chicken and my husband is noted for his spare ribs.
Last week my sister and her family were over and when we fired up the grill there was a look of horror on her face. She says charbroiled meat causes cancer. I have a hard time imagining this. What’s the story?

A. Your sister isn’t wrong. Cooking meat on a grill can create carcinogenic chemicals. But that does not mean you have to give up the barbecue.

For safer grilling, use the three Ms-marinate, microwave and manipulate the meat. Marinating the meat can reduce the surface temperature during cooking. High heat contributes to the formation of carcinogens.

Turning meat frequently also keeps surface temperature lower, but allows the interior to cook thoroughly. Defrosting or pre-cooking the meat in the microwave reduces the amount of potentially cancer-causing chemicals formed on the grill.

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